Old St. Andrews



The Poor House - PANB



RS 148 E.5.H
Provincial Archives of New Brunswick


An addition to Poor House 1838.
Various references to grave digging fees. Also fees for transporting paupers to SJ, Boston, Fton. Names given


Charlotte County Bank in operation—loaned money for addition
Ref. to fee for making coffins
Bill for board and nursing Ann Gove’s child to 16 Oct. 1838.
“Jacob Porter for his bill for Nursing and board of Mary Harvey’s child”
Bill “for attending funeral of Mary Main.”
1838 “Paid Mrs. Murphy for board of Catherine Hogan / blind woman”
1838 “Moses Stewart for labour of self and oxen at PH Farm” 1.1.6
1838 “Received from Moses Stewart for amt his rents to May 1st, 1838. 3.0.2.”
1838 “Thomas Carrick for passage of paupers to Boston.” 5 £.
1836 “Paid James McMaul for burying sailor.”
1836 Paid Mrs. Woodside for nursing Mrs. Gowan
1836 Various charges paid for “bastardy”
1836 The Debit of this account is composed of
            Supplies to Transient Paupers                        7.19.8
            Supplies to Outdoor Resident Poor                 6.14.3
            Supplies on Account of Bastardy                   32.6.5
            Supplies to Poor House                                   42.12.6


1836 Account of Henry O’Neill embraces supplie to Alms House, supplies to transient poor, supplies to resident poor, butchering, loaning bulls, ploughing, making clothing for children


1833 St. Andrews
Mr. Jack oct 5, 1833
Burial of the man from the hospital
Rector, Clerke, Sexton, Tolling Bell, Pall (separate charges for all, didn’t note which church)
Received payment John Bentley


16 Aug. 1836 Rector’s attendance on burial of Sailor found drowned. 1.3.9


1836 Aug 31 For dressing a child found in the church yard, supposed to be murdered. Keeping it at my house, 0.10.0
Mr. Handy


1840 5 cows to the bull—“Please pay to the bearer for 5 cows to the bull. One only has been to the bull since I came but I understand from Anthony that 4 had the bull before I came.” T.  Wheaton. To Mr. T. Sime, Commissioner of the Poor to Moses Stewart  for use of bull to 5 cows at 2.16 per.


1840 25 Aug Pay to Mrs. Connors and child 20 shillings to enable them to proceed to New York.”


Many burials at Roman Catholic Church


1841 Received ot Thomas Sime 10 shillings for th support of John irwin’s child. Signed Janet Cameron


Ann Gove’s child was at the Poor House from at least 1838 to 1841 (was she actually at the poor house or was she boarded at home?)


1841 Ref. to “workhouse.” Only one I’ve ever seen


1840 To C. B. Hatheway, for going to Poor House and taking examinations in a case of bastardy and issuing warrant. 0.7.6 (so in this case the child or mother were actually at the poor house.)


march 1841 For going to Poor house and taking examination in a case of assault and battery by Mrs. Gilbert. Warrant. (wife beating?)


1841 march To John Pike (constable) for searching for  Thomas Walton with warrant for bastardy. 5 lbs.


April 10, 1841 For boarding and attendance on George Carr with broken leg. 8.9.3. Received payment Edwin McIvor


aug 14, 1841 Constable paid for serving warrant on Robert Addis at Chamcook for bastard child and carting him to jaily. 8.9.


1855 Betsy Ross in Poor House. Also Clarissay Richardson. Refs. to “blind Mary’ and Mary stewart. These accounts show inmates being paid “relief” money. Such as 0.2.6


Balance Sheet 1855
Board inmates Alms House                             120
Clothing Paupers                                             30
Doctor’s Salary                                               18
Bastardy                                                         14
Insurance                                                        5
Outdoor Relief`                                                75
contingencies                                                  5
Total Expenditures                                          295


cash on hand                                                  20
Commons Rents                                              135
Rent of farm                                                    20
Dog Tax                                                           6
Required Assessment                                                100
Total Income                                                    281


Farm income very low. Outdoor relief half of care of inmates.


Affidavit 1856
George Gilley deposeth and saith that he was inbed at his house on Saint Andrews Island last night when he heard the cry of a child at his door upon which he got up went to the door found a white male child, apparently about a fortnight old, wrapped up in a blanket. This deponent has no knowledge from when the child was brought or of its parents,and therefore makes this statement for the information of the commissioners of the Poor for the Parish of St. Andrews” 16 Aug. 1856
(The Poor House paid 1.1.0 for sundry expenses to Mr. Gilley for taking care of the child for one wee; also for cotton, flannel and woolen clothing for the child and passage from island to Mainland)


the Secretary’s Bill, Outdoor Relief
April 7, 1856, notes various items for “inmates” but also “relief” to others.
Edward Lanangan to pay his fare to Calais 0.1.3
Cash paid Margaret Richardson
paid widow Banan, cash paid blind boy Connel


Abstract Expenditures Commissioners of Poor 1858
Board Inmates                                     99.6.0              99.6.0
Repairs Poor House                            23.15.11          23.15.11
Clothing Paupers                                 17.19.0
Insurance Poor House                        4.10.0              4.10.0
Physicians Fees ½ salary                  4.10.0              10.00 Medical Care (1/2 total)
Dr. Gove’s bill                                      6.17.6              Poor House 139 pounds (approx                                                                                      ½ total poor expense)
Rents Outdoor Paupers                      6.5.0
Outdoor Relief                                     97.4.7
Secretary’s Salary                              10.0.0
Additional Expenditures                      19.19.0
Total Expenses                                  290.7.0


Commons Rents                                  126                  Rents total approx ½ required                                                                                          income
Rent Poor House Farm                        20
Dog Tax                                               6
Required Assessment                                    150
Total Income                                       302.0.0


1859 Mary Stewart being boarded at PH along with 9 others


1859 Outdoor Relief—
To Widow Greenlaw,
bushel meal, half gal. molasses, 1 pound tea, 1 lb. butter, half pound candles, 1 doz. herring, half pound tobacco
(other payments include bag meal, crackers, calico, cotton, flour, salt, sugar, pork, seeds, gingham, bushel meal, salt, teapot, soap, threat


1858 Paid cole hauling Thomas and Children from Poor House
Sundries for Johnson family, Waweig, Hatch family Chamcook


March 7, 1858 1 pair trousers Blind bill


March 20, 1858 Various passages paid to Eastport. Eg. “2 women and 4 children to Eastport”


1856 Margaret Richardson and child inmates at PH. Still there in 1858


1856 Bill of John Balson for moving John Burns, wife and family to SS. 1.10.0
Moving Widow Burns and family furniture and effects to SS. 1.5.0


May 1836 Paid for passage and provisions for Indian family to SJ. 12.6.0


1857 I pair boots blind Pat


July 20, 1857 Paid Black Clara relief 0.3.9


Oct 3 to 15, 1857 7 gallons rum purchased from James Street


29 June 1857 Received from Com. Poor 2 pounds five shillngs for taking care of a German for 3 weeks—the said German beign sick with fever.” James McGowan. includes “cash paid said German on his recovery to help him to Boston.”


Aug 18, 1857 Paid Sullivan to help him to Portland. 1 barrel flour mrs. Banan


Dec 17, 1857 Funeral expenses Mr. McGrath
6 yards white cotton for shroud, 1 yard muslin, paid Mrs. Cole for making shroud


Nov 29, 1856 to Mrs. Scanlan, paid 1 year’s rent


June 7, 1856 for making clothing for inmates poor house by Mrs. Cole, 1 dress, 2 caps


Dec 10, 1956 “For repairing blind boys’ boots”


1857 Betsy Ross appears on the pH list but as a delivery on list of outdoor relief


Aug 7, 1858 supplied passage sundry paupers to SJ and Calais.


Nov 25, 1858 Four families supported on outdoor relief


May 31 – July 12, 1838
William Stewart a poor debtor


1836 William Babcock supplied brandy to poor House. only 9 pints over a year however


1835 William Babcock and sons supplied 6 primers for “Poor House School” and 6 spelling books June 25. Also port wine and brandy.


The Parish of St. Andrews paid most of the expenses such as to local contractors who supplied the poor house, as well as outdoor relief, including rents and firewood, but also tobacco, cloth and household sundries; salary to Poor House managers, court costs, insurance, funeral expenses, secretary and treasurer. It received from R. Haddock (1861) commons rents, a major payment (431 pounds); 371 in “poor rates” (must have been the Parish assessment), 69 pounds from H. O’Neill for turnips (did H. O’Neill rent Poor House farm land?); pound fees, pasturage, potatoes, calf, pigs, oats, hay, fines and constables (who probably were active in bastardy cases, serving warrants and the like), also in this year collected a 33 pound fine to “O’Neill for soliciting soldier to desert from HMS?; with 240 pounds owing on credit for a total of 1273.78.


1863 accounts Parish collected 457 commons rents, 416 taxes, 76 railway rents, 95 sales produce and pasturage (so also rented out land for grazing), 20 Justice Boyd fines, 14 Justice Fitzgerald fines, for a total income of approx. 1380.00 dollars.


The Poor House also paid out of pocket for sundry expenses, and were probably re-imbursed by the Parish. Actually the Poor House had quite extensive orders from certain businesses. Must be the Poor House ran these things up on its tab, and the Parish then paid off the account.


The account for fall of 1859 to Odell and Turner includes dry goods as well as passage on railway and boats. Were Odell and Turner administrators for the Poor Commissioners? Sounds like. Mr. Odell was requested to pay F. Bradford 1 pound for money advanced to a certain lady during her sickness.


The Overseers of the Poor of the parish of St. Andrews to John Heaney of St. Andrews
For the laying in of Ellen Heaney in Bastardy, 5 pounds
Keeping the bastard child of the said Ellen heaney from the 23rd day of April last to the 15thd day of September instant being 20 weeks and five days at five shillings per week. Total 11.8.4.
Saint Andrews
September 15, 1862
Charged against John Cunningham
(so this was paid to John Heaney and received from John Cunningham)


when mentioning a burial in a specific church burial ground, not the Poor House  Cemetery, such as the RC church; use Alice Bannan’s example, June 29, 1864, as I have the items ordered to prepare the child for burial from Albion House, which might make a good illustration. See photocopy


“Whereas there is a balance of $47.54 due Thomas Algar, ordered that the sum of $24.4 be paid him out of the funds of the Town of Saint Andrews and the balance of $23,50 be paid him by the Commissioners of the Poor House St. Andrews out of parish funds.” I certify that the foregoing is a true copy from the Records of the april General Session 1864. Benjamin R. Stevenson, Deputy Clerk of Peace, 12th Aug 1864


come up with a typical list of Poor House supplies


The Parish paid funeral expenses for Alice Bannan’s child, though I do not believe she was a resident of the Poor House; in fact she wasn’t as the parish also paid her rent.


As in the case of Heaney, a bastard child could be taken care of at the mother’s home; in her case her father would have been reimbursed


Mention that of typical Poor House expenses, making of coffins and paying for burials was an all-too-common cost; use a church bill here


“I the undersigned to hereby agree to supply the Alms House with five quarters of beef and mutton for the tem of one year at 6 ½ cents per pound.
Henry O’Neill, May 5, 1865”


The Commissioners of the Poor paid constable fees in arresting and fining fathers in bastardy cases, as the Commissioners were reimbursed by the delinquent fathers for expenses paid out to the unfortunate mothers.


Certain tenders had a fixed price:
“I hereby undertake to furnish the Alms House and outdoor paupers of the parish with medicines and attendance for the year ending May 1st, 1866 for the sum of 36 dollars.
S. T. Gove”


 Bastardy costs were quite a regular item in the Poor House accounts


In 1867 the Parish was supplying David Ross with firewood on a regular basis


The Farm Operation:
In 1866 Henry O’Neill paid 110 dollars to the Parish or farm for 1 calf, 1 hog, 1 bull, 1 heifer, and 170 bushels of turnips. Sounds like the Poor House Farm did livestock as well as agriculture farming. The Farm then paid the Parish the above 110 dollars on the animals and turnips sold to H. O’Neill. The Farm hired hands to work the farm. Doesn’t sound like the keeper had much to do with that end of things. Probalby more a manager.


In 1868 Eliza Stewart, colored, receives a load of wood.


Hannah Maria Dolby seems to have had a contract to make clothing for the poor. She was the wife of the Keeper, John Dolby
March 13th, 1867
The Parish of St. Andrews is indebted to Hannah Maria Dolby for sewing done for the poor.
Clara Richardson, 1 dress .25
Margaret Richardson 1 petticoat .10
Clara Richardson 3 caps .30
Mary 2 pinafores .20
William Douglas 2 pinafores .15
Total $1.00
March 13, 1867
She also made aprons, striped shirts for men, sheets, bed ticks, underclothes for Clara, dresses,


The Poor house accounts are interesting because they show the whole town at work. Everybody almost stood to gain something from the care of the poor. Should probably be more specific in a short way as to which business supplied what.


Henry O’Neill both purchased from the farm and supplied a lot of goods to it; see photocopy


Farming expenses included sharpening plows, shoeing horses, replacing and fixing harness straps—John Wilson supplied many of these needs. Get a copy of his bill. Fencing was often in need of repair as well.


Cartage of farm produce a common expense


Moses Stewart was paid for horse hire on the farm


One load wood Eliza Cole, Feb 19, 1868. She was married to George Stewart at the time. Acutally she may not have been living with him; they have different addresses on the 1861 census I think. Quite a lot of wood was distributed during the winter.


No references to permanent residents, or “inmates” of Poor House in Parish acccounts of late


Looks like some of the farm produce was used in outdoor relief; see Count of Stock and Produce, 1869


The shoe repair bill for January, 1869 makes it seem as though Clary, Margaret and daughter, Kitty Cox, Colbert, A Devlin, William Little are all residents of Poor House.


In 1868 the Poor House was still functioning as a temporary boarding house. Mrs. McGowan paid five dolalrs for “rent of room” up to Nov 1, 1868.


In March 1869 the Commissioners of Poor delivered cart loads of wood to 7 or 8 different families


Coffin for Elizabeth Ross, Sept 21, 1872. Also for C. M. Dement?
Coffin for D. Ross, 1872. How sad and end for them both


April 1873 3 school books and stationery etc.


Good breakdown of farm produce for 1879; see photocopy


By 1879 the bill formerly of Parish of St. Andrews seems to have changed to the Municipality of Charlotte


Alms House Farm, 1877
Memorandum showing quantity of produce raised past season:
Hay, 11 tons
Straw 2 ½ tons
Oats 75 bushels
Wheat 35 bushels
Potatoes 450 bushels
Turnips 520 bushels
Carrots 50 bushels
Beets 40 bushels
Parsnips 6 bushels
Mangle Wurzel 50 bushels
Beans 1 ½ bushels


Prouduce of Cows:
Butter 345 lbs.
Milk 45 dollars woth used in house
Veal Calves 285 lbs.
1 litter young pigs
Total sale of produce animal and vegetable: 761 dollars
This is for August, September, October and November.


Feb 12/1879
A visit to the Alms House last week with other commissioners convinced us of the excellent management of Mr. and Mrs. Finley who superintend this home home for the poor and aged. The rooms were neat and clean, the house warm, and the aged men and women expressed themselves well satisfied with the attention paid them by the keeper and his wife and their rations. The house is regularly visited by the clergymen of all denominations and service is regularly held by the Rector. The stock is kept in good order, and produce of the farm carefully husbanded. The surplus produce is sold and account kept of the proceeds, which serve materially to reduce taxation for support of the poor. The number of inmates at present are six women and six men, all over 70 years of age, and a small boy. These are so infirm that they are unable to perform any kind of labor. Many of them have been residents of the house for several years. The “outdoor relief” given by the Commissioners is large owing to the depressed time and lack of employment.


January 1879
Extract from the Minutes of Meeting of Commissioners:
Resolved, . . . Your Commissioners having learned that he property adjoining the Alms House Farm, belongng to the Estate of the late John Fryar and known as the Tufts Farm, containing about eleven acres, wold probably be sold the following season. Therefore resolved that the mater be brought to the notice of the Councellors, with a recommendation that the above named lands to opurchased and added to the Alms House Farm—should it be obtainable at a reasonable price.” This in response to the “greatdifference or deficienty in the past two seasons, betweenthe amounts asked in asesment by the Commisssioners and the amounts paid out to them, there being a deficiency in 1877 and 1878 of 315.00.”


Report Commissioners of Alms House and Poor, 1880
“Your Commissioners have again to call attention to the very great dificit in the returns on account of Poor Rates. Eight hundred dollars having been assessed for maintenance of Poor, of which amount only 527.26 has been paid over to this commission—over one third or 272.70 reamining unpaid at the present time. There is also a balance due on assessment of 1877 and 1878 of 156, to say nothing of deficiences of previous years.
            There has been an averqge of twelve persons maintained in the Alms House during the past twelve months. the nuber has been diminished during the past year by the deaths of several of the very aged inmates, four of them were carried off by the epidemic which prevailed in th emwinter of 1878-79. The total deaths in 1879 being five persons, of whom all were aged.


Estimates Balance Sheet 1880
Liabilities                                                          310
Alms House                                                     800
Out Door Relief                                                250
Farm operations and Buildings                        250
Contingencies                                                 50
Total Expenditures                                          1660


Assets                                                                        30
Taxes of 1879                                                 150
Commons Rents                                              250
Farm Income                                                    250
Interest                                                            100
Interest and fines                                            30
Total Income                                                    810
Assessment Required`                                   850


Again, Alms House about ½ total poor expense. Farm income .19 of total income. Way up over 1858 but less than 1887.


Balance Sheet 1887
Poor House Keeper                                         291
Paupers Clothing and Food                             397
Outdoor Relief                                                 86
Bastardy                                                         28
Fire Insurance 3 years                                    56
Doctors                                                           48
Secretary’s Salary                                          40
Old Debts Paid                                     424
Farm and Poor House Purchases                   392
Balance Bank of NS                                        604
Total                                                                2372


Balance in Bank of NS                                    443
County Treasurer Old Taxes                          123
Tax Collected                                                  989
County Secretary                                            220
Rents commons                                              204
Pound fines                                                     5
Produce farm Sold                                          510
Total Income                                                    2372


Farm Sales are .22 percent of total income. In 1858 they were only .007 of total income. The farm end of things has been beefed up considerably. Outdoor Relief has gone down from ½ to 1/3.


The last bill on record is 1900